Nehru notes that during the post-mutiny period, all the leading man among Indian Muslim, including Sir Syed Ahmad Khan were products of the old traditional education although some of them were influenced by new ideas. Thanks to Gandhi's leader ship a united hindu-Muslim front was forged against the British. The congress spearheaded the non-corporation movement started in 1920 by Gandhi and the Khilafat committee. In 1922 Gandhi announced a new face of civil disobedience leading to the ultimate defiance of paying taxes, but called it of later. Amidist the Hindu-Muslim collaboration crumbling at the ages. MA Jinnah, Muslim League leader, walked out of the Congress. While Gandhi languished in jail, a parliamentary commission under Sir Johan Simon arrived in 1928 to make a review of the montague-Chlms ford reforms of 1927 only to be greeted by massive demonstrations through out India. The congress with Gandhi released, rallied around a boycott of Siman Commission. An angry mob shouts slogans Siman! Go back against stiff police resistance. Sir Mohammad Iqbal (who wrote the fiery nationalist poem Sare Jehan Se Achha...) plays a vital role influencing the newly growing middle class and the younger generation. Emerging leader likes DR. Ansari are confabulating to provide a seen of direction to the Muslim masses at nodal centers like Allahabad,and Aligarh. They discuss how alli brothers ‘Mhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali) had paid a prominent role in the Khilafat movement and suffered imprisonment for the congress in the 1920's when in 1930, news come that Mohammed Ali is no more, the condolence meeting resolves that Lucknow city would observe a total closure as a mark of respect to his departed soul. But some Hindu shop keepers object on the ground that Ali was a Muslim. This takes most leaders by surprised, as Ali besides having chaired a congress session was a part of Gandhi's no tax agitation and Nehru socialistic campaign.
In retaliation against the Hindu resistance many Muslims shopkeepers are refuse to bring down shutters for Bhagat Singh, even though he died for the cause of India's freedom. Enforced closures results in riots, to the utter this may of higher leadership who declare that Hindu and Muslim are as indivisible as the air and the sky.
The drama takes the separatism forward in holding central and the provincial election under the act of 1935. Muslim league is revamped under Jinnah and the rivalry between the congress and the Muslim league gathers momentum in the electioneering campaigns. The results go overwhelmingly in favor of the congress in most provinces and there Government established in 1937.
Nehru observes that Indian nationalism as represented by the congress, apposed British imperialism. Jinna had propounded a theory that India consisted of two nationals Hindu and Muslims. From this theory developed the concept of Pakistan or the splitting up of India: as a direct of shoot of the divide and rule policy of the British.